3 edition of Chemical ecology of paralytic shellfish toxin producing dinoflagellates found in the catalog.
Chemical ecology of paralytic shellfish toxin producing dinoflagellates
by Dept. of Marine Ecology, Göteborg University, Kristineberg, Kristineberg Marine Research Station in Göteborg, Fiskebäckskil
Written in English
|LC Classifications||QK569.D56 S45 2007|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||1 v. (various pagings) :|
|LC Control Number||2007440828|
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is one of the four recognized syndromes of shellfish poisoning, which share some common features and are primarily associated with bivalve mollusks (such as mussels, clams, oysters and scallops).These shellfish are filter feeders and accumulate neurotoxins, chiefly saxitoxin, produced by microscopic algae, such as dinoflagellates, diatoms, and cyanobacteria. Neurotoxins belonging to the group of saxitoxin (STX) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) analogs are guanidinium alkaloids that share a common high affinity and ion flux blockage capacity for voltage‐gated sodium ion channels (Na V).Members of the STX group, also known as paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), are produced among three genera of marine dinoflagellates and several genera of phylogenetically.
Dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium synthesize potent neurotoxins known as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. The grazing responses of two abundant copepod species from the Gulf of. Balech E () Biogeography of toxic dinoflagellates in. Cembella AD () Chemical ecology of eukaryotic. This microalgae is well known for its production of paralytic shellfish toxin.
Selander E, Thor P, Toth GB, Pavia H. Copepods induce paralytic shellfish toxin production in marine dinoflagellates. Proc R Soc Lond Ser B-Biol Sci. ; ()– [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ]. A substantial proportion of bacteria from five Alexandrium cultures originally isolated from various countries produced sodium channel blocking (SCB) toxins, as ascertained by mouse neuroblastoma assay. The quantities of SCB toxins produced by bacteria and dinoflagellates were noted, and the limitations in comparing the toxicities of these two organisms are discussed.
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Title: Chemical ecology of paralytic shellfish toxin producing dinoflagellates: Authors: Selander, Erik Issue Date: University: Göteborgs universitet.
Chemical ecology of paralytic shellfish toxin producing dinoflagellates. By Erik Selander. Year: OAI identifier: oai: Provided by: Göteborgs universitets publikationer - e-publicering och e-arkiv.
Download PDF: Author: Erik Selander. Neurotoxic paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are produced in the marine environment mainly by dinoflagellates of three genera associated with harmful algal blooms (HABs). These include about a dozen species of Alexandrium, a single species of Gymnodinium (G.
catenatum) and a single species of Pyrodinium (P. bahamense).Cited by: 4. The ability of two Alexandrium species to produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) in laboratory culture following the generation of bacteria‐free cultures was investigated. The dinoflagellates Alexandrium lusitanicum NEPCC and Alexandrium tamarense NEPCC were cultured in the presence of antibiotics and tested for residual bacteria.
After treatment with a cocktail of streptomycin Cited by: Paralytic shellfish toxin-producing MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES. • The biology and ecology (life‐histories, growth The causative organisms of paralytic shellfish poisoning What we know about.
Zonneveld et al. Introduction. Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a threat to marine aquaculture and shellfish consumers around the world. PSP is caused by planktonic dinoflagellates of the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium and microscopic phytoplankton produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), a group of highly potent neurotoxic alkaloids among which saxitoxin was the first to be.
The production of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) has been attributed to dinoflagellates, with members of the Alexandrium, Gymnodinium and Pyrodinium genera reported to produce PST. Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are potent neurotoxins produced by certain dinoflagellate and cyanobacterial species.
The autonomous production of PSTs by bacteria remains controversial. In this study, PST production by two bacterial strains, isolated previously from toxic dinoflagellates, was evaluated using biological and analytical methods. The natural function of these toxins is not clear, although they have been hypothesized to act as a chemical defence towards grazers.
Here, we show that waterborne cues from the copepod Acartia tonsa induce paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) production in the harmful algal bloom-forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum. Copepods induce paralytic shellfish toxin production in marine dinoflagellates Article (PDF Available) in Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences () August The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum has previously been shown to produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) in response to waterborne cues from the copepod Acartia tonsa.
In order to investigate if grazer-induced toxin production is a general or grazer-specific response of A. minutum to calanoid copepods, we exposed two strains of A.
minutum to waterborne cues from three other species of. Dinoflagellates are perhaps best known to the public as the source of red tides leading to fish and other marine animal kills, as well as various types of human illness caused by their toxins: paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, and ciguatera (Landsberg, ; Hallegraeff et al., ).
Georgina L. Hold, Elizabeth A. Smith, T. Harry Birkbeck and Susan Gallacher, Comparison of paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) production by the dinoflagellates Alexandrium lusitanicum NEPCC and Alexandrium tamarense NEPCC in the presence and absence of bacteria, FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 36, 2‐3, (), ().
Martins CA, Alvito P, Tavares MJ, Pereira P, Doucette G, Franca S. Reevaluation of production of paralytic shellfish toxin by bacteria associated with dinoflagellates of the Portuguese coast. Appl Environ Microbiol. ; [PMC free article].
Shellfish containing toxic levels of Paralytic Shellfish Poison don't look or taste any different from shellfish that are safe to eat. Laboratory testing of shellfish meat is the only known method of detecting Paralytic Shellfish Poison.
Numerous microalgal species have been documented to produce STXs and all are potentially human health risks via the food chain. However, the sources of the majority of PSP reports are the marine dinoflagellates Alexandrium tamarense, A.
fundyense, A. catenella, Gymnodinium catenatum, and Pyrodinium bahamense 1 [84–85].Because STXs are also produced by freshwater. Concentrations of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in toxic dinoflagellate cells and in marine planktonic copepods were monitored during the bloom of Alexandrium tamarense in Hiroshima Bay, western Japan.
Concentration of the toxins retained by copepods was a function of the ambient toxin concentration, i.e. the product of A. tamarense cell density and cellular toxicity.
The cosmopolitan marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum is known to produce toxins causing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP).
As has recently been shown, this toxicity can be enhanced by. The purpose of the study was to determine if paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins are present in extracellular bacteria isolated from a toxic strain of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum.A quantitative analysis was carried out of viable culturable bacteria attached to the surface of dinoflagellates and of bacteria present in dinoflagellate culture medium.
Epidemiologic Notes and Reports Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning -- Massachusetts and Alaska, Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a foodborne illness caused by consumption of shellfish or broth from cooked shellfish that contain either concentrated.
The bloom-forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum responds to pico- to nanomolar concentrations of copepodamides with up to a fold increase in production of paralytic shellfish toxins. Different copepod species exude distinct copepodamide blends that contribute to the species-specific defensive responses observed in phytoplankton.
Dihydrocopepodamides are approximately 10 times more potent inducers of paralytic shellfish toxin production in dinoflagellates than copepodamides (Selander et al.
). Thus, formation of harmful algae blooms may be more promoted by copepods rich in dihydrocopepodamides such as Acartia clausi, Centropages hamatus, and T.
longicornis.Many dinoflagellates species, especially of the Alexandrium genus, produce a series of toxins with tremendous impacts on human and environmental health, and tourism drium tamutum was discovered for the first time in the Gulf of Naples, and it is not known to produce saxitoxins.
However, a clone of A. tamutum from the same Gulf showed copepod reproduction impairment and.